Super Guide on How to Write Web Design and Development Tutorials

Posted in Blogging, Tips, Web Design • Posted on 19 Comments

Are you ready to get started writing about Web Design?

A few months back, I wrote an article called “Secrets of Learning Web Design and Getting Paid While Doing So”, where I introduced how writing about web design can improve your knowledge and at the same time make yourself some money.

It was a real success judging by the response it got. Many of you wanted to take on the challenge. Today I am going to take the first step by revealing the secrets of writing top quality tutorials.

Writing is an art which needs to be mastered through practice. So let’s take the first step of a long journey as a web design writer.

Keep in mind that we have two major goals. Learning web design and use that knowledge to generate a good income. We have chosen writing as the path which takes us towards our goals.

This is what You wanted to Know

I received hundreds of suggestions, questions and concerns when we published my article (linked above). It wasn’t a surprise to see that all of you that wanted to follow this path had two major questions:

  • How to write web design and development tutorials on popular topics and get noticed?
  • How to get writing opportunities with popular design blogs and get paid?

Nothing can be achieved instantly. So I’ll start with answering the first question throughout this article. Once you establish yourself as a good writer, we can see how to get paid for writing.

Your Focus as a Writer

As a beginner, your ultimate goal should be to get as much feedback as possible, regardless of whether or not it’s all positive, from your readers.

Positive feedback means that:

  • You are providing what readers expect you to provide.
  • You are increasing the possibility of getting paid for writing.

Negative feedback means that:

  • Your content is common and the readers are not interested in seeing more of the same tutorials.
  • You are providing content that has mistakes, due to lack of knowledge. Feedback will help you learn and not repeat the same mistakes in the future.

Don’t try to produce content just to get negative feedback and learn from it. Instead try to be controversial.

The definition of controversial is: giving rise, or likely to give rise, to public disagreement.

When you write about controversial topics, always make sure to state that what you’re writing is your opinion. Don’t ever state that your opinion is right or the best way of doing things, but that it is the way you prefer to do things.

Responsive design might be a good topic for sharing controversial opinions. Everyone is saying that RWD is the future of web design. You could mention that RWD isn’t yet the right solution by talking about the layout issues in fluid grids or bandwidth issues on mobile devices.

Before starting to write for web design blogs, you should be familiar with what makes the best content. The following infographic illustrates the crucial aspects of what makes the best content.

what-makes-the-best-website-content
Credit – http://www.mattaboutbusiness.com/what-makes-the-best-website-content-infographic/trackback/

Now let’s pick some topics to write.

Pick Trending Tutorial Types

Every tutorial is unique in its nature of expressing ideas even though they make get different results from readers. You will always have ups and downs with each new tutorial. Picking the right type of tutorials will help you to stay on top. Certain types of tutorials are preferred by users and it’s wise to learn about them to make it success. Following is a list of top trending tutorials to get more results as writers.

Screencasts

preview-large-basicwebdesignvideocoursepart2

A screencast is a video recording of your computer screen while you explain how to do something. These are one of the most popular type of tutorials, as readers can see how it is actually designed in real time. In order to do screencast tutorials you will need a quality microphone, screen recording software, and a lot of practice to get it right.

Now let’s look at some general guidelines for creating quality video tutorials.

  • Make sure to explain every step in a simple manner while going through the tutorial. Since most people are visual learners, they tend to ignore the explanation.
  • Include some background information about the tasks you are doing. For example, consider a situation where you design a responsive layout. Using media queries is one of the core tasks in responsive design. Before you start working with media queries, provide a brief introduction about what they are.
  • Usually we create the design first and finalize with necessary modifications before starting the screencast. Then we do the design again for the readers by recording it. Since we have done it before, we know what exactly will happen at each stage and ideally we’ll show the output after every step so that viewers will know the importance of each step.

Creating a video tutorial is an extremely entertaining task compared to writing tutorials. Also readers also seem to prefer video tutorials. So here at 1WD we decided to create some awesome video tutorials for web design beginners. As a beginner tutorial writer, these resources will help you to master the art of screencasts.

Here are some of the top screencasts for you to learn,

Step by Step Design and Coding Tutorials

Even though screencasts are popular, there are not many video tutorial resources online compared to those for written tutorials. Therefore the next most popular type of tutorial are step by step design tutorials.

In these tutorials, you have to create a complete design or part of a design from scratch. Most of these tutorials have a demonstration of the design and code files for the readers to download. Hence the final output will be a working design ready to be used by your readers.

As a beginner, you should be mainly focusing on these type of tutorials as it doesn’t require you to be as experienced. You can design whatever you want and teach readers how to be more creative with the given design.

So let’s take a look at some cool examples for step by step design tutorials.

Writing these type of tutorials is not difficult as long as you have some creativity and knowledge of the expectations of your readers. Here are some guidelines I recommend following for step by step design tutorials.

  • Break the design code into small chunks and explain separately.
  • Include screenshots of important steps of your tutorial.
  • Make sure to have a demo for the tutorial in every possible situation. It would also be ideal if you can show the demo after each important step so that readers know what they are doing.

Trendy Tutorials

This is another popular type of tutorial since every designer and developer wants to stay up to date with the latest techniques. Even though I refer to is as trendy, we can also consider the latest versions of a popular library or service for these type of tutorials.

Responsive web design is the most popular trending topic currently. Also the new features of the latest WordPress version is another popular topic.

Success of these tutorials depend on how early you publish them. You will get more results when you publish a tutorial just after a new version has been released or new concept has been introduced.

This list contains some tutorials on current trends for your reference.

Now you have the knowledge of choosing the right type of tutorial to be a successful tutorial writer. The next most important step is to know how to structure your posts to get more attention from readers.

Catch the Attention – Make it Easy on the Eye

There is no point in writing tutorials unless people read and use them. So getting visitors to see your tutorials is important for writers and website owners. The most important thing is the first impression on your article.

There are hundreds of websites that have tutorials on web design and most of the regular readers will be looking at their favorite sites on a consistent basis. They definitely they don’t have enough time to read all those articles. So how do you get them to read yours?

“Time is what we want most,but what we use worst.”
― William Penn

It’s a must to grab their attention instantly within the first few sections of a tutorial. A catchy heading is one way of grabbing attention. Once you have their attention it’s important to keep them interested through the first few sections of the article. So let’s see how to structure posts properly to keep users interested and make it easy on the eyes to read.

Before we get started, let’s take a look at the structure and design of 1stWebDesigner tutorials for a perfect illustration of making it easy on the eye.

Screenshot-1712

You can see that the post is structured in a way that is easy for readers to go through the tutorial without any distractions.

Writing tutorials with long and continuous paragraphs is the easiest way of demotivating the reader. I tend to stay away from this kind of a tutorial as a reader since I cannot figure out whether the tutorial provides what I want.

I feel tutorials are well structured if the reader can trace the most important contents and get a summary of the tutorial  just by looking at the post without reading much. Obviously it means that the tutorial should contain different sections, so that we can track the sections separately.

Let’s explore the different types of content to create well structured tutorials.

  • Headings. Headings are one of the most important factors in writing tutorials. There should be a set of main headings mentioning the main points of your tutorial. Then sub headings are necessary to break down main points into smaller points. Most tutorials on 1stWebDesigner use proper headings and you can refer to almost any of them to get an idea about proper headings.
  • Paragraphs. Tutorials should contain short paragraphs whenever possible. Don’t use more than 3-4 sentences in a paragraph. Readers get bored quickly when they have to read long paragraphs. Readers will have to read through the whole paragraph to get the idea. So keep it short and straight to the point.
  • Images or Screenshots. Images makes things easy for readers in design related tutorials. There are two types of images. First, using general images to display a picture related to the tutorial or some kind of a diagram. The second, and most widely used, is the screenshots where you capture the screen several times while doing the design. Screenshots are a must-have for tutorials which result in something the reader can download. After each important step you should be placing screenshots of your design for the reader. Consider the following image:screenshots
  • Source Codes. This content comes with design specific tutorials. Source code is a great way of breaking long paragraphs. Sometimes we see tutorials where we need paragraphs to break source code. This is a bad practice. It’s difficult for readers to understand a considerable amount of source code at once. Therefore you should be breaking the source code into smaller chunks and provide explanations inline with the codes. Also you need the support of a quality code formatting plugin. Following is a preview of effective usage of source codes in tutorials.sourcecodes
  • Demonstrations. I feel it is a must for design based tutorials which focus on a final result. The demo is the first thing readers are going to look at when it comes to tutorials. If a demo is not available, readers are not going to trust you with your code and tutorial. So it’s ideal to have a demo whenever possible. The quality of the demo makes a huge difference to the readers feedback. Sometimes our main target is to write a tutorial to teach a certain theory. In this case a demo is not the most important thing but readers will always look for the demo and decide the quality of tutorial based on that. So if you have a demo, make it awesome.demoHere is a list of tutorials with excellent demos.
  • Quotes. Quotes is a good way of giving the reader a break. It’s difficult to continuously read through a long article. So we can place important things as quotes to break the content and allows user to think for a moment.First thing is you need a specific design that helps differentiate the quotes from other content. quotes1Tuts+quotes2What Should You Quote?I would prefer including important theories, definitions and inspirational sayings. You can find many examples for quoting in this article as well.

Now having completed the guide on structuring tutorials, I bet you would like to have a look at a complete example of a well structured article. Learn Web Design The Right Way: Quit College And Start Sucking Blood by James Richman is a great example that illustrates the power of structuring.

Learn how the article is structured and include demo’s and code to create amazing tutorials with awesome content to catch the eye of your readers.

Less is More – Minimize the Scope

The scope of a tutorial plays a vital role in its success. In my opinion it is the first, and the most important, factor to be taken into consideration.

What is Scope?

According to dictionary.com, Scope is the extent of the area or subject matter that something deals with or to which it is relevant.Basically this means the amount of range we are going to cover in a specific topic.

So why am I telling you to minimize the scope of your tutorials?

Every writer wants to cover extensive topics such as “Responsive Web Design”, “WordPress Theme Design”, “CSS Preprocessors” etc. Now the problem is these topics are very broad and experts in the field have already published tutorials on them. As beginners, our tutorials on similar topics will go unnoticed due to the high percentage of quality tutorials already available on those topics.

Our goal is to find topics which are:

  • a common problem to readers.
  • not being answered by the experts.

In order to meet both of the criteria’s mentioned above, we need to minimize the scope until we find something unique to write.

Let’s consider a practical example for identifying the importance of scope.

Assume that you have been asked to write an article related to Responsive Web Design. Usually your first choice will be something like “How to Design Responsive Web Pages” or “What is Responsive Design?” Even though both of these sound good, there are dozens of articles and tutorials already available. It doesn’t mean that you can’t get good results, just that there will be an awful lot of competition.

Now you have to look for a topic with narrow scope to be successful. We can consider titles such as “How to Handle Fonts in Responsive Design” and “Responsive Design for Large Screen Resolutions” as good choices in this situation.

Fonts  are vital for to a good design, but not many tutorials will explain how to use fonts and sizes in RWD. In RWD we talk about adjusting the design to suit mobile based devices which have smaller dimensions. No one talks about how to handle responsive design in monitors with large screen resolutions.

Here fonts and large screens is a very small part of the design. What you have to do is explain and discuss these small areas in detail using examples.

“It’s not always that we need to do more but rather that we need to focus on less.”
― Nathan W. Morris

So basically we have to choose a very narrow scope in a topic with a very large scope and try to write a complete tutorial explaining it all in detail. Success is guaranteed since your tutorial will be unique among other competitive web sites.

This article itself is a pretty good example for understanding scope. Here my title covers a wide range and shouldn’t be chosen in normal circumstances. Even though there are a lot of articles about writing tutorials, none of them talks specifically about writing on web design. Hence this topic seems good, even it covers a wide range.

An ideal topic to focus on from this article might be something like “How to Choose the Right Scope for Tutorials” or “Use of Source Codes in Design Based Tutorials”.


How Do You Choose the Right Scope?

There is no defined way of selecting the right scope. I’ll share the method I am using to find the topics with right scope.

  • First choose any kind of topic you want to write. Assume that you have chosen responsive design.
  • Now search and read tutorials and articles on the topic. Within these tutorials, you can find sub topics such as media queries,fluid grids, adaptive design etc.
  • Then search those keywords and see if there are a considerable amount of tutorials available. If not, select one of these keywords and write the article straight away.
  • There may be situations where the sub topics are also covered well by many other writers. If this is the case, go to question/answer sites like stackoverflow and search questions on those keywords. Then pick the keyword with the most questions and write a tutorial explaining the keyword or part of it.
  • If the tutorial becomes too long, break it into a series of parts and ask the readers to do something after each part to increase the feedback.

What’s Next?

You might have a good understanding on how to write tutorials on web design now. Next will be putting the theories into practice. For that you need to read lot of quality tutorials and write your own at the same time.

I hope you remember our main goal of “Learn and Earn”. We have covered the learning part through tutorial writing. At this stage you shouldn’t be focusing on the earning part.Once you become expert in design, money will come automatically through various kinds of ways.

Write tutorials and get ready to be a paid writer. Jamal will be covering how to earn money writing in one of his future articles.

Until then let me know your concerns and what else you expect from me to boost your web design career as a writer.

22 Written ArticlesWebsiteGoogle+

Rakhitha Nimesh is a software engineer and writer from Sri Lanka. He likes to develop applications and write on latest technologies. He is available for freelance writing and WordPress development. You can read his latest book on WordPress Web Application Development. He is a regular contributor to 1stWebDesigner, Tuts+ network and Sitepoint network. Make sure to contact him at www.innovativephp.com or follow him on Twitter and Google+

19 Comments Best Comments First
  • tien

    Thursday, April 4th, 2013 12:27

    1

    Thanks for sharing this! Love it! Love it! This is brilliant for my current project! My problem is sorted. :)

    +1
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:36

      4

      Hi Tien

      Thank you very much for your interest in my article.

      What is you current project?

      How did this article solved your problem?

      Let us know. We would like to hear from you.

      +1
  • Percy

    Thursday, April 4th, 2013 14:11

    2

    Thank you for this article.. I just love it. As an instructor in web design it help me a lot personally, I will share it with my students. Keep up the good work. Nice job!

    +1
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:38

      5

      Hi Percy

      Thank you very much for your interest and sharing this with your students.

      Do you teach online as well?

      Let us know.

      0
      • Percy

        Saturday, April 6th, 2013 12:57

        8

        Yes but in spanish .. in udemy. But I’m interested in teaching
        More in this area.. Im an adobe certified educator in flash, photoshop and dreamweaver. Best regards!

        0
  • David

    Sunday, April 7th, 2013 01:14

    9

    Being a web designer myself, this article covered a lot of wonderful things that I could add to my artillery. Sometimes, I will need to teach new designers on my team and this is a great guide on helping me to achieve superb tutorials.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:11

      14

      Hi David

      Thank you very much for your interest in my tutorial.

      Even though we don’t write articles, teaching is important as web designers to guide beginners in our working places.

      Do you write articles on web design?

      Let me know. I would like to have a read.

      0
  • Awais Raza

    Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:54

    7

    I am a web designer and also writing articles for more exposure. I am also aiming to write tutorials, but still I am not sure where to start from. This article really benefited me on how to write it properly. Let’s see how much these tips work on my blog.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:15

      15

      Hi Raza

      I am glad that you learned something from my article. It’s always difficult in the beginning too find topics and structure posts. I had the same experience few years back. But now with the experience I get lot of ideas for tutorials as well as good content.

      So keep doing what you do and you will become a popular writer in few months.

      What topics do you write about?

      Let me know.

      0
      • Awais Raza

        Thursday, May 16th, 2013 09:42

        18

        I am a front end developer, having good hands on HTML5/CSS3 , JS and Jquery, also good at Photoshop. So I am looking to create some front end tutorials. I would deliver all the tuts for free, because I believe in knowledge for everyone.

        0
  • Marios

    Thursday, April 4th, 2013 17:08

    3

    Hey man, I have just launched my blog and I was planning on making a series of tutorial articles and your article surely is going to help me a lot on this direction! Can’t really find the words to express my gratitude! Thanx! :)

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:41

      6

      Hi Marios

      Thank you very much for your interest in my article.

      I visited your web site and like the way you explain things. So what kind of topics are going to focus there?

      What are the techniques you find useful from this article?

      Let me know.

      0
  • Gaz

    Monday, April 8th, 2013 08:32

    10

    A tutorial and writing tutorials :) Great work though, certainly helped!

    Sometimes I do find it quite difficult to write a well structured article and get to the point.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:04

      13

      Hi Gaz

      Indeed sometimes it difficult for everyone to struture the posts properly. I have been in that situation quite a few times. I am glad that my article helped you to get a better idea about writing articles.

      What kind of topics do you write on? Do you write on any popular blogs?

      Let me know.

      0
  • Danielle

    Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 07:27

    11

    Thank you so much for this article! I’m in the middle of redoing my portfolio site, but I wanted to make it MORE than just that. I’d thought about adding a blog section for Tech tutorials or posts about trends and things, but wasn’t sure how to start. This helped me get some good ideas on where to begin.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:01

      12

      Hi Danielle

      Thank you very much for your interest in my article.

      Are you a web designer? If so it’s definitely worth creating a blog to get visitors and promote your services and products. Tech tutorials can get traffic automatically because those ones come up on top of the search engine rankings.

      Let me know how it goes once you launch your site.

      +1
  • Nikhil Malhotra

    Friday, June 7th, 2013 14:49

    19

    I believe I should start focusing on visual tutorials using screen capture software.The only big obstacle is to choose a relavent topic.Thanks for explaing the importance.

    0
  • Mike Obremski

    Tuesday, April 16th, 2013 21:23

    16

    Great article! I’ve been contemplating for some time on running some tutorials for my clients on how to access their wordpress sites and add pages and posts, etc… I just thought if I’m going to do the work, I may as well make those available to the general public as well, but perhaps for a price.

    What are your thoughts on when you should charge for a tutorial and when you should give it away?

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Friday, April 19th, 2013 08:00

      17

      Hi Mike

      Thank you very much for taking time to provide your suggestions.

      Great to know that you are already writing on WordPress and you can very easily become a well paid writer if you wish. Only thing is you need to do lot of writing and get experience before getting higher rates.

      Basically you must have your own blog, if you are to be successful as a paid writer. Create your best posts consistently in your blog. Once you have few quality posts, you can contact popular web sites to see if they are interested in your writings.

      I personally feel all the tutorials on your own blog should be kept free and you can charge for the posts you write for other sites. Also if you wish creating a premium tutorial section in your blog can be a good technique to make money.

      But you should always need to have free content for users. Let me know if you have more questions.

      0
  • Nikhil Malhotra

    Friday, June 7th, 2013 14:49

    19

    I believe I should start focusing on visual tutorials using screen capture software.The only big obstacle is to choose a relavent topic.Thanks for explaing the importance.

    0
  • Mike Obremski

    Tuesday, April 16th, 2013 21:23

    16

    Great article! I’ve been contemplating for some time on running some tutorials for my clients on how to access their wordpress sites and add pages and posts, etc… I just thought if I’m going to do the work, I may as well make those available to the general public as well, but perhaps for a price.

    What are your thoughts on when you should charge for a tutorial and when you should give it away?

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Friday, April 19th, 2013 08:00

      17

      Hi Mike

      Thank you very much for taking time to provide your suggestions.

      Great to know that you are already writing on WordPress and you can very easily become a well paid writer if you wish. Only thing is you need to do lot of writing and get experience before getting higher rates.

      Basically you must have your own blog, if you are to be successful as a paid writer. Create your best posts consistently in your blog. Once you have few quality posts, you can contact popular web sites to see if they are interested in your writings.

      I personally feel all the tutorials on your own blog should be kept free and you can charge for the posts you write for other sites. Also if you wish creating a premium tutorial section in your blog can be a good technique to make money.

      But you should always need to have free content for users. Let me know if you have more questions.

      0
  • Danielle

    Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 07:27

    11

    Thank you so much for this article! I’m in the middle of redoing my portfolio site, but I wanted to make it MORE than just that. I’d thought about adding a blog section for Tech tutorials or posts about trends and things, but wasn’t sure how to start. This helped me get some good ideas on where to begin.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:01

      12

      Hi Danielle

      Thank you very much for your interest in my article.

      Are you a web designer? If so it’s definitely worth creating a blog to get visitors and promote your services and products. Tech tutorials can get traffic automatically because those ones come up on top of the search engine rankings.

      Let me know how it goes once you launch your site.

      +1
  • Gaz

    Monday, April 8th, 2013 08:32

    10

    A tutorial and writing tutorials :) Great work though, certainly helped!

    Sometimes I do find it quite difficult to write a well structured article and get to the point.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:04

      13

      Hi Gaz

      Indeed sometimes it difficult for everyone to struture the posts properly. I have been in that situation quite a few times. I am glad that my article helped you to get a better idea about writing articles.

      What kind of topics do you write on? Do you write on any popular blogs?

      Let me know.

      0
  • David

    Sunday, April 7th, 2013 01:14

    9

    Being a web designer myself, this article covered a lot of wonderful things that I could add to my artillery. Sometimes, I will need to teach new designers on my team and this is a great guide on helping me to achieve superb tutorials.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:11

      14

      Hi David

      Thank you very much for your interest in my tutorial.

      Even though we don’t write articles, teaching is important as web designers to guide beginners in our working places.

      Do you write articles on web design?

      Let me know. I would like to have a read.

      0
  • Awais Raza

    Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:54

    7

    I am a web designer and also writing articles for more exposure. I am also aiming to write tutorials, but still I am not sure where to start from. This article really benefited me on how to write it properly. Let’s see how much these tips work on my blog.

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Tuesday, April 9th, 2013 20:15

      15

      Hi Raza

      I am glad that you learned something from my article. It’s always difficult in the beginning too find topics and structure posts. I had the same experience few years back. But now with the experience I get lot of ideas for tutorials as well as good content.

      So keep doing what you do and you will become a popular writer in few months.

      What topics do you write about?

      Let me know.

      0
      • Awais Raza

        Thursday, May 16th, 2013 09:42

        18

        I am a front end developer, having good hands on HTML5/CSS3 , JS and Jquery, also good at Photoshop. So I am looking to create some front end tutorials. I would deliver all the tuts for free, because I believe in knowledge for everyone.

        0
  • Marios

    Thursday, April 4th, 2013 17:08

    3

    Hey man, I have just launched my blog and I was planning on making a series of tutorial articles and your article surely is going to help me a lot on this direction! Can’t really find the words to express my gratitude! Thanx! :)

    0
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:41

      6

      Hi Marios

      Thank you very much for your interest in my article.

      I visited your web site and like the way you explain things. So what kind of topics are going to focus there?

      What are the techniques you find useful from this article?

      Let me know.

      0
  • Percy

    Thursday, April 4th, 2013 14:11

    2

    Thank you for this article.. I just love it. As an instructor in web design it help me a lot personally, I will share it with my students. Keep up the good work. Nice job!

    +1
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:38

      5

      Hi Percy

      Thank you very much for your interest and sharing this with your students.

      Do you teach online as well?

      Let us know.

      0
      • Percy

        Saturday, April 6th, 2013 12:57

        8

        Yes but in spanish .. in udemy. But I’m interested in teaching
        More in this area.. Im an adobe certified educator in flash, photoshop and dreamweaver. Best regards!

        0
  • tien

    Thursday, April 4th, 2013 12:27

    1

    Thanks for sharing this! Love it! Love it! This is brilliant for my current project! My problem is sorted. :)

    +1
    • Rakhitha Nimesh

      Saturday, April 6th, 2013 09:36

      4

      Hi Tien

      Thank you very much for your interest in my article.

      What is you current project?

      How did this article solved your problem?

      Let us know. We would like to hear from you.

      +1

Comments are closed.

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